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    1. 中国湿地水鸟

      湿地鸟类是湿地野生动物中最具代表性的类群,是湿地生态系统的重要组成部分,灵敏和深刻地反映着湿地环境的变迁。

      据统计,目前我国有湿地水鸟12目32科271种,其中属国家重点保护的水鸟有10目18科56种,属国家保护的有益或者有重要经济、科学研究价值的水鸟有10目25科195种。按居留型可分为夏候鸟、冬候鸟、留鸟和旅鸟4类,其中大部分是候鸟和旅鸟。在亚洲57种濒危鸟类中,中国湿地内就有31种,占54%;全世界鹤类有15种,中国有记录的就有9种,占60%;全世界雁鸭类有166种,中国湿地就有50种,占30%。

      我国湿地水鸟的分布是与各地的气候、水文、植被等自然地理特点相适应的。北方处于寒温带和温带,种类以夏候鸟和旅鸟?#21152;?#21183;;南方处于亚热带和热带,种类以冬候鸟和留鸟?#21152;?#21183;。很多水鸟都是在北方繁?#24120;?#21040;南方越冬。

       

      中国主要水鸟名录

      序号中文名学名英文名
      潜鸟目 GAVIIFORMES
      潜鸟科 Gaviidae (4)
      1红喉潜鸟 Gavia stellataRed-throated Diver
      2太平洋潜鸟 Gavia pacificaPacific Diver
      3黑喉潜鸟 Gavia arcticaBlack-throated Diver
      4白嘴潜鸟 Gavia adamsiiWhite-billed Diver
      目 PODICIPEDIFORMES
      科 Podicipedidae (5)
      5小 Tachybaptus ruficollisLittle Grebe
      6角 Podiceps auritusHorned Grebe
      7黑颈 Podiceps nigricollisBlack-necked Grebe
      8凤头 Podiceps cristatusGreat CrestedGrebe
      9赤颈 Podiceps grisegenaRed-necked Grebe
      鹱形目 PROCELLARIIFORMES
      信天翁科 Diomedeidae(2)
      10短尾信天翁 Diomedea albatrusShort-tailedAlbatross
      11黑脚信天翁 Diomedea nigripesBlack-footed Albatross
      鹱科 Procellariidae(8)
      12暴风鹱 Fulmarus glacialisPacific Fulmar
      13白额鹱 Puffinus leucomelasWhite-frontedShearwater
      14曳尾鹱 Puffinus pacificusWedge-tailed Shearwater
      15灰鹱 Puffinus griseusGrey Shearwater
      16短尾鹱 Puffinus tenuirostris Short-tailedShearwater
      17钩嘴圆尾鹱 Pterodroma rostrataT ahiti Petrel
      18点额圆尾鹱 Pterodroma hypoleucaBonin Petrel
      19纯褐鹱 Bulweria bulwerii Bulwer's Petrel
      海燕科 Hydrobatidae(2)
      20白腰叉尾海燕 Oceanodroma leucorhoaFork-tailed Storm Petrel
      21黑叉尾海燕 Oceanodroma monorhisSwinhoe's Storm Petrel
      鹈形目 PELACANIFORMES
      鸏科 Phaethontidae(3)
      22短尾鸏 Phaethon aethereus Short-tailed Tropic-bird
      23红尾鸏 Phaethon rubricaudaRed-tailed Tropic-bird
      24白尾鸏 Phaethon lepturusLong-tailed Tropic-bird
      鹈鹕科 Pelecanidae (2)
      25白鹈鹕 Pelecanus onocrotalusEastern White Pelican
      26斑嘴鹈鹕 Pelecanus philippensisSpot-billed Pelican
      鲣鸟科 Sulidae(2)
      27红脚鲣鸟 Sula sulaRed-footed Booby
      28褐鲣鸟 Sula leucogasterBrown Booby
      鸬鹚科 Phalacrocoracidae (5)
      29[普通]鸬鹚 Phalacrocorax carboCommon Cormorant
      30斑头(绿)鸬鹚Phalacrocorax capillatusTemminck's Cormorant
      31海鸬鹚 Phalacrocorax pelagicusSea Cormorant
      32红脸鸬鹚Phalacrocorax urile Red-faced Cormorant
      33黑颈鸬鹚 Phalacrocorax nigerLittle Cormorant
      军舰鸟科 Fregatidae(3)
      34小军舰鸟 Fregata minorLesser Frigate Bird
      35白腹军舰鸟 Fregata andrwsiChristmas Island Frigate Bird
      36白斑军舰鸟 Fregata arielLeast Frigate Bird
      鹳形目 CICONIIFORMES
      鹭科 Ardeidae (21)
      37苍鹭 Ardea cinereaGrey Heron
      38草鹭 Ardea purpureaPurple Heron
      39绿鹭Butorides striatusLittle Green Heron
      40池鹭 Ardeola bacchusChinese Pond Heron
      41牛背鹭 Bubulcus ibisCattle Egret
      42白颈黑鹭 Egretta picataPied Heron
      43大白鹭 Egretta albaLarge Egret
      44白鹭 Egretta garzettaLittle Egret
      45黄嘴白鹭 Egretta eulophotesChinese Egret
      46岩鹭 Egretta sacraReef Heron
      47中白鹭 Egretta intermediaIntermediate Egret
      48夜鹭 Nycticorax nycticorax Black-crowned Night Heron
      49栗头虎斑鳽 Gorsachius goisagiBrown Night Heron
      50海南虎斑鳽 Gorsachius magnificusChinese Night Heron
      51黑冠虎斑鳽 Gorsachius melanolophusMalay Night Heron
      52小苇鳽 Ixobrychus minutusLittle Bittern
      53黄苇鳽 Ixobrychus sinensisYellow Bittern
      54紫背苇鳽 Ixobrychus eurhythmus Schrenck's Bittern
      55栗苇鳽 Ixobrychus cinnamomeusCinnamon Bittern
      56黑鳽 Ixobrychus flavicollisBlack Bittern
      57大麻鳽 Botaurus stellarisGreat Bittern
      鹳科 Ciconiidae (5)
      58彩鹳 Mycteria leucocephalusPainted Stork
      59白鹳 Ciconia ciconiaWhite Stork
      60东方白鹳 Ciconia boycianaOriental White Stork
      61黑鹳 Ciconia nigraBlack Stork
      62秃鹳 Leptoptilos javanicus Lesser Adjutant Stork
      鹮科 Threskiornithidae (6)
      63[黑头]白鹮 Threskiornis melanocephalusWhite Ibis
      64黑鹮 Pseudibis papillosaBlack Ibis
      65朱鹮 Nipponia nipponCrested Ibis
      66彩鹮 Plegadis falcinellaGlossy Ibis
      67白琵鹭 Platalea leucorodiaWhite Spoonbill
      68黑脸琵鹭 Platalea minor Black-faced Spoonbill
      雁形目ANSERIFORMES
      鸭科 Anatidae (47)
      69黑雁 Branta berniclaBrant Goose
      70红胸黑雁 Branta ruficollis Red-breasted Goose
      71鸿雁 Anser cygnoidesSwan Goose
      72豆雁 Anser fabalisBean Goose
      73白额雁 Anser albifrons White-fronted Goose
      74小白额雁 Anser erythropusLesser White-fronted Goose
      75灰雁 Anser anserGreylag Goose
      76斑?#36153;?Anser indicusBar-headed Goose
      77雪雁 Anser caerulescensSnow Goose
      78大天鹅 Cygnus cygnusWhooper Swan
      79小天鹅 Cygnus columbianusWhistling Swan
      80疣鼻天鹅 Cygnus olorMute Swan
      81[栗]树鸭 Dendrocygna javanicaLesser Whistling Teal
      82赤麻鸭 Tadorna ferrugineaRuddy Shelduck
      83翘鼻麻鸭 Tadorna tadornaCommon Shelduck
      84针尾鸭 Anas acutaPintail
      85绿翅鸭 Anas creccaCommon Teal
      86花脸鸭 Anas formosaBaikal Teal
      87罗纹鸭 Anas falcataFalcated Teal
      88绿?#36153;?Anas platyrhynchosMallard
      89斑嘴鸭 Anas poecilorhynchaSpotbill Duck
      90赤膀鸭 Anas streperaGadwall
      91赤颈鸭 Anas penelopeWigeon
      92白眉鸭 Anas querquedulaGarganey
      93琵嘴鸭 Anas clypeataShoveller
      94云石斑鸭 Marmaronetta angustirostrisMarbled Teal
      95赤嘴潜鸭 Netta rufina Red-crested Pochard
      96帆背潜鸭 Aythya valisineriaCanvasback
      97红头潜鸭 Aythya ferinaCommon Pochard
      98白眼潜鸭 Aythya nyrocaWhite-eyed Pochard
      99青头潜鸭 Aythya baeriBaer's Pochard
      100凤头潜鸭 Aythya fuligulaTufted Duck
      101斑背潜鸭 Aythya marilaScaup Duck
      102鸳鸯 Aix galericulata Mandarin Duck
      103棉凫 Nettapus coromandelianusCotton Teal
      104瘤鸭 Sarkidiornis melanotosComb Duck
      105小绒鸭 Polysticta stelleriSteller's Eider
      106黑海番鸭 Melanitta nigraBlack Scoter
      107斑脸海番鸭 Melanitta fuscaWhite-winged Scoter
      108丑鸭 Histrionicus histrionicusHarlequin Duck
      109长尾鸭 Clangula hyemalisLong-tailed Duck
      110鹊鸭 Bucephala clangula Goldeneye
      111白头硬尾鸭 Oxyura leucocephalaWhite-headed Duck
      112斑头秋沙鸭 Mergus albellusSmew
      113中华秋沙鸭 Mergus squamatusChinese Merganser
      114红胸秋沙鸭 Mergus serrator Red-breastedMerganser
      115普通秋沙鸭 Mergus merganserGoosander
      隼形目FALCONIFORMES
      鹰科Accipitridat(1)
      116Pandion haliatus Osprey
      鹤形目GRUIFORMES
      鹤科Gruidae (9)
      117灰鹤 Grus grusCommon Crane
      118黑颈鹤 Grus nigricollisBlack-necked Crane
      119白头鹤 Grus monachaHooded Crane
      120沙丘鹤 Grus canadensis Shandhill Crane
      121丹顶鹤 Grus japonensisRed-crowned Crane
      122白枕鹤 Grus vipioWhite-naped Crane
      123白鹤 GrusleucogeranusSiberian White Crane
      124赤颈鹤 Grus antigoneSarus Crane
      125蓑羽鹤 Anthropoides virgoDemoiselle Crane
      秧鸡科Rallidae (19)
      126普通秧鸡 Rallus aquaticusWater Rail
      127蓝胸秧鸡 Rallus striatusBlue-breasted Banded Rail
      128红腿斑秧鸡 Rallina fasciataRed-legged Crake
      129白喉斑秧鸡 Rallina eurizonoidesBanded Crake
      130长脚秧鸡 Crex crexCorn Crake
      131白眉秧鸡 Porzana cinereaAshy Crake
      132姬田鸡 Porzana parvaLittle Crake
      133小田鸡 Porzana pusillaBaillon's Crake
      134斑胸田鸡 Porzana porzanaSpotted Crake
      135红胸田鸡 Porzana fuscaRuddy Crake
      136斑胁田鸡 Porzana paykulliiBand-beilied Crake
      137棕背田鸡 Porzana bicolorRufous-backed Crake
      138花田鸡 Porzana exquisitaSwinhoe's Yellow Rail
      139红脚苦恶鸟 Amaurornis akoolBrown Crake
      140白胸苦恶鸟 Amaurornis phoenicurus White-breasted WaterHen
      141董鸡 Gallicrex cinereaWater Cock
      142黑水鸡 Gallinula chloropusMoorhen
      143紫水鸡 Porphyrio porphyrioPurple Moorhen
      144白骨顶 Fulica atraCoot
      鸻形目 CHARADRIIFORMES
      雉鸻科 Jacanidae (2)
      145铜翅水雉 Metapidius indicus Bronge-winged Jacana
      146水雉 Hydrophasianus chirurgus Pheasant-tailed Jacana
      彩鹬科 Rostratulidae (1)
      147彩鹬 Rostratula benghalensisPainted Snipe
      蛎鹬科 Haematopodidae (1)
      148蛎鹬 Haematopus ostralegusOystercatcher
      鸻科 Charadriidae (15)
      149凤头麦鸡 Vanellus vanellusLapwing
      150灰头麦鸡 Vanellus cinereusGrey-headed Lapwing
      151肉垂麦鸡 Vanellus indicus Red-wattledLapwing
      152距翅麦鸡 Vanellus duvauceliiSpur-winged Lapwing
      153?#37326;?#40507; Pluvialis squatarolaGrey Plover
      154金[斑]鸻 Pluvialis dominicaEastern Golden Plover
      155剑鸻 Charadrius hiaticulaRinged Plover
      156长嘴剑鸻 Charadrius placidus Long-billed Ringed Plover
      157金眶鸻 Charadrius dubiusLittle Ringed Plover
      158环颈鸻 Charadrius alexandrinusKentish Plover
      159蒙古沙鸻 Charadrius mongolusMongolian Plover
      160铁嘴沙鸻 Charadrius leschenaultiiLarge Sand Plover
      161红胸鸻 Charadrius asiaticusCaspian Plover
      162东方鸻 Charadrius veredusEastern Sand Plover
      163小嘴鸻 Eudromias morinellusDotterel
      鹬科 Scolopacidae (48)
      164小杓鹬 Numenius minutusLittle Whimbrel
      165中杓鹬 Numenius phaeopus Whimbrel  
      166白腰杓鹬 Numenius arquataCurlew
      167红腰杓鹬 Numenius madagascariensis Red-rumped Curlew
      168黑尾塍鹬 Limosa limosaBlack-tailed Godwit
      169斑尾塍鹬 Limosa lapponicaBar-tailed Godwit
      170红脚鹤鹬 Tringa erythropusSpotted Redshank
      171红脚鹬 Tringa totanusRedshank
      172泽鹬 Tringa stagnatilisMarsh Sandpiper
      173青脚鹬 Tringa nebularia Greenshank
      174白腰草鹬 Tringa ochropusGreen Sandpiper
      175林鹬 Tringa glareolaWood Sandpiper
      176小青脚鹬 Tring a guttifer Armstrong's Sandpiper
      177小?#24179;?#40556; Tringa flavipesLesser Yellowlegs
      178灰鹬 Tringa incanaGrey Sandpiper
      179矶鹬 Tringa hypoleucosCommon Sandpiper
      180灰尾漂鹬 Heteroscelus brevipesGrey-rumped Sandpiper
      181漂鹬 Heteroscelus incanusGery Sandpiper
      182翘嘴鹬 Xenus cinereusTerek Sandpiper
      183翻石鹬 Arenaria interpres Turnstone
      184长嘴鹬 Limnodromus scolopaceusLong-billed Dowitcher
      185半蹼鹬 Limnodromus semipalmatusSnipe-billed Godwit
      186孤沙锥 Gallinago solitariaSolitary Snipe
      187澳南沙锥 Gallinago hardwickii Latham's Snipe
      188林沙锥 Gallinago nemoricolaWood Snipe  
      189针尾沙锥 Gallinago stenuraPintail Snipe
      190大沙锥 Gallinago megalaSwinhoe's Snipe
      191扇尾沙锥 Gallinago gallinagoFantail Snipe
      192丘鹬 Scolopax rusticolaWoodcock
      193姬鹬 Lymnocryptes minimusJack Snipe
      194红腹滨鹬 Calidris canutusRed Knot
      195大滨鹬 Calidris tenuirostrisGreat Knot
      196红胸滨鹬 Calidris ruficollisRed-necked Stint
      197西方滨鹬 Calidris mauriWestern Sandpiper
      198长趾滨鹬 Calidris subminutaLong-toed Stint
      199小滨鹬 Calidris minutaLittle Stint
      200乌脚滨鹬 Calidris temminckiiTemminck's Stint
      201尖尾滨鹬 Calidris acuminataSharp-tailed Stint
      202岩滨鹬 Calidris ptilocnemisRock Sand-piper
      203黑腹滨鹬 Calidris alpinaDunlin
      204弯嘴滨鹬 Calidris ferrugineaCurlew Stint
      205斑胸滨鹬 Calidris melanotosPectoral Sandpiper
      206三趾滨鹬 Crocethia alba Sanderling
      207勺嘴鹬 Eurynorhynchus pygmeusSpoon-billedSandpiper
      208阔嘴鹬 Limicola falcinellusBroad-billed Sandpiper
      209高跷鹬 Micropalama himantopusStilt Sandpiper
      210黄胸鹬 Tryngites subruficillisBuff-breastedSandpiper
      211流苏鹬 Philomachus pugnaxRuff
      反嘴鹬科 Recurvirostridae (3)  
      212鹮嘴鹬 Ibidorhyncha struthersiiIbis-bill
      213黑翅长脚鹬 Himantopus himantopus Black-winged Stint
      214反嘴鹬 Recurvirostra avosettaPied Avocet
      瓣蹼鹬科Phalaropodidae (2)
      215红颈瓣蹼鹬 Phalaropus lobatusRed-necked Phalarope
      216?#37326;?#36476;鹬 Phalaropus fulicariusGrey Phalarope
      石鸻科Burhinidae (2)
      217大石鸻 Esacus magnirostrisGreat Stone Plover
      218石鸻 Burhinus oedicnemusStone Curlew
      燕鸻科 Glareolidae (2)
      219普通燕鸻 Glareola maldivarumOriental Pratincole
      220灰燕鸻 Glareola lacteaSmall Pratincole
      鸥形目LARIFORMES
      贼鸥科 Stercorariidae (4)
      221中贼鸥 Stercorarius pomarinusPomatorhine Skua
      222大贼鸥 Catharacta skuaGreat Skua
      223短尾贼鸥 Stercorarius parasiticusShort-tailed Skua
      224长尾贼鸥 Stercorarius longicaudusLong-tailed Skua
      鸥科 Laridae (33)
      225黑尾鸥 Larus crassirostrisBlack-tailed Gull
      226海鸥 Larus canusCommon Gull
      227银鸥 Larus argentatusHerring Gull
      228灰背鸥 Larus schistisagusSlaty-backed Gull
      229?#39029;?#40485; Larus glaucescens Glaucous-winged Gull
      230北极鸥 Larus hyperboreusGlaucous Gull
      231渔鸥 Larus ichthyaetusGreat Black-headed Gull
      232遗鸥 Larus relictusRelict Gull
      233红嘴鸥 Larus ridibundus Black-headed Gull
      234棕头鸥 Larus brunnicephalusBrown-headed Gull
      235细嘴鸥 Larus geneiSlender-billed Gull
      236小鸥Larus minutus Little Gull
      237黑嘴鸥 Larus saundersiSaunder's Gull
      238三?#21495;?Rissa tridactylaBlacked-leggedKittiwake
      239楔尾鸥 Rhodostethia roseaWedge-tailed Gull
      240须浮鸥 Chlidonias hybrida Whiskered Tern
      241白翅浮鸥 Chlidonias leucopteraWhite-winged Black Tern
      242黑浮鸥 Chlidonias nigerBlack Tern
      243鸥嘴噪鸥 Gelochelidon niloticaGull-billed Tern
      244红嘴巨鸥 Hydroprogne caspiaCaspian Tern
      245黄嘴河燕鸥 Sterna aurantiaRiver Tern
      246普通燕鸥 Sterna hirundo Common Tern
      247粉红燕鸥 Sterna dougalliiRoseate Tern
      248黑枕燕鸥 Sterna sumatrana Black-naped Tern
      249黑腹燕鸥 Sterna melanogasterBlack-bellied Tern
      250?#27542;?#29141;鸥 Sterna anaethetusBrown-winged Tern
      251乌燕鸥 Sterna fuscataSooty Tern
      252白额燕鸥 Sterna albifrons Little Tern
      253大凤?#36153;?#40485; Thalasseus bergiiLarge Crested Tern
      254小凤?#36153;?#40485; Thalasseus bengalensisLittle Crested Tern
      255黑嘴端凤?#36153;?#40485; Thalasseus bernsteiniChinese Lesser Crested Tern
      256白顶黑燕鸥 Anous stolidusCommon Noddy
      257白燕鸥 Gygis albaWhite Tern
      剪嘴鸥科Rynchopidae (1)
      258剪嘴鸥 Rhynchops albicollisIndian Skimmer
      海雀科Alcidae(4)
      259扁嘴海雀 Synthiboramphus antiquus Ancient Murrelet
      260斑海雀 Brachyramphus marmoratusMarbled Murrelet
      261角嘴海雀 Cerorhinca monocerataHornbilled Auklet
      262冠海雀 Synthliboraphus antiqusCrested Murrelet
      鴞形目STRIGIFORMES
      鸱鴞科 Strigidae(3)
      263毛腿渔鴞 Ketupa blakistoniBlackiston's Fish Owl
      264褐渔鴞 Ketupa zeylonensisBrown Fish Owl
      265?#24179;?#28180;鴞 Ketupa flavipesTawny Fish Owl
      ?#40497;?#20711;目CORACIIFORMES
      翠鸟科 Aleedinidae(6)
      266冠鱼狗 Ceryle lugubrusCrested PiedKingfisher
      267斑鱼狗 Ceryle rudisLesser Pied Kingfisher
      268普通翠鸟 Alcedo atthisCommon Kingfisher
      269赤翡翠 Halcyon coromandaRuddy Kingfisher
      270白胸翡翠 Halcyon smyrnensisWhite-breasted Kingfisher
      271篮翡翠 Halcyon pileataBlack-capped Kingfisher
      重庆时时彩注册送38元

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